Though we do not know what causes BIA-ALCL, there is increasing evidence to support an infective trigger. The time frame for its development fits with a chronic bio-film infection. In addition to the implant surface acting as a passive conduit for bacteria, it is believed that patients with genetic susceptibility and with an abnormal immune response, over time may contribute to the eventual development of BIA-ALCL. The 14 point plan (www.saferbreastimplants.org/about/the-14-point-plan/) has strategies that can be incorporated into surgical practice to prevent implant contamination and may be a useful tool in reducing the risk of BIA-ALCL.
To summarise, Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) remains a rare condition that has been identified in 360 patients worldwide. All of the information to date suggests that women with breast implants have a very low but increased risk of developing ALCL compared to women who do not have breast implants. Most cases of breast implant-associated ALCL are treated by removal of the implant and the capsule surrounding the implant, however, some cases may require chemotherapy.