Surgical options very much depend on the degree of excess breast tissue and whether there is excess skin associated with it. It has been graded by Simon as:
Grade 1 small, but visible breast tissue with no redundant skin
Grade 2a moderate breast development with no skin redundancy
Grade 2b moderate breast development with redundant skin
Grade 3 marked breast tissue with significant excess skin
Treatment: Lower-grade gynaecomastia can be managed with simple excision and/or liposuction of the abnormal tissue (Grade 1–2a). Often, a fibrous disc is present beneath the nipple and this cannot be removed by liposuction alone and will require excision. Higher-grade gynaecomastia, especially that which appears as a female breast will usually require skin excision and, consequently, involves more extensive scarring,making a good aesthetic outcome difficult.
The attached photos are before and after combination of liposuction and open excision with a visible scar around the lower nipple, and additional scarring to remove excess skin on the right.